Scaling and root planing is a non-surgical procedure that is typically performed with local anesthesia. Deep scaling and root planing is usually broken down into the right and lefts sides of the mouth per appointment. Scaling is the removal of the dental tartar/calculus from the tooth/root surfaces and Root planing is the process of smoothing the root surfaces.
Plaque and tarter that sit on the teeth provide an environment which allow bacteria to thrive and multiply. The bacteria cause the gums to become inflamed and bleed. This condition becomes more noticeable when you brush/floss your teeth and sometimes when you eat. These are signs of the early stage of gingivitis. Gingivitis is easily treated by having your teeth scaled and polished and then to start implamenting proper home care techniques and habits. If gingivitis is left untreated, the condition will progress to periodontal disease.